1988 廖洪標製作坐釋迦
1988 廖洪標製作坐釋迦

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1988 廖洪標製作坐釋迦
1988 廖洪標製作坐釋迦

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桃園結義
桃園結義

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1988 廖洪標製作坐釋迦
1988 廖洪標製作坐釋迦

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Master of Art and Crafts of China  Liao Hongbiao

Liao Hongbiao (1936- ) is a master of Shi-wan pottery. Under his father's guidance, Liao learns the basic techniques and knowledge of clay, glaze and fire, and he builds solid skills for further art development by imitating works by the predecessors. In addition to creating various forms, Liao is diligent in studying and testing various formulas of clay and glaze, and features of fire to best represent his artworks.

His early artworks have the features of Pan Yushu and Liu Chuan, but gradually Liao integrates more and more his ideas in his art. By applying cubic structure, which is often used in western sculpture to emphasize the volume, Liao adds a taste of bold into his simple, powerful artworks. The Founder of the Chan Sect, Attains Enlightenment, and Li Kui are artworks with particular pottery textures, giving a more vivid impression of the characters, and generating strong visual power to viewers. Liao also depicts a subject with different viewpoint from others, such as Budda Sakyamuni, instead of presenting the general image of grace and peace after attaining Buddha-hood, the artwork shows the endurance and hardship during

Besides offering the viewer the traditional sense of affinity found in Shiwan art, Liao Hongbiao’s works embrace the power of the universe and the talents of the artist. His art is an integration of art and crafts (form, meaning and spirit), three-dimensional space and the art of Flambé glaze (clay, glaze and fire), and he makes use of professional techniques (such as expression of the composition, expression of the structure and expression of the sculpture texture) to demonstrate the inner depth and broadness of a work. Liao is not only the most representative figure of the contemporary Shiwan ceramic art but also a hard-to-come-by sculpture master of traditional Chinese crafts and arts. The poetry of Wang Anshi is the most appropriate description of Liao’s life-long devotion to and pursuit of art: “What looks ordinary is indeed the most extraordinary; what seems easy is actually arduous.”

When Foshan TV came to Taiwan to visit the curator Zhang Yuteng in 2013, he said: Liao Hongbiao is the first master of Chinese arts and crafts to hold a solo exhibition at the National Museum of History. This exhibition is of great significance to the times.

廖洪標主頁用圖_工作區域 1 複本 8.jpg
廖洪標主頁用圖_工作區域 1 複本 9.jpg
5. 千里走單騎 廖洪標1991-1993.jpg

Cracked Green Glaze

The whole set of works highlight the heroic image of Guan Yu, who rides a thousand miles to escort two ladies to find their husband, Liu Bei, his sworn brother. High on his courser, holding his Green Dragon Crescent Blade, Guan Yu looks majestic and powerful. The hero, the blade, the horse – three in one – they are symbols of power, righteousness and strength.

The three slanting legs of the horse are the pivot points of the whole piece. The principle of balance has to be considered. It is not easy to produce a statue of this kind, because during the process of production every part of the statue is slowly rubbed, pressed, pasted or wiped by hand, and the density of any part is different from that of another. Another issue is that during the process of producing such works in which certain weights have to be supported, the moisture must be regulated perfectly; it is easy for the ceramic piece to crack if the working environment is too dry or too moist, then the whole process fails. (This is different from the production of porcelain or copper pieces, where one can use the slip casting method). This is why works of this kind can only be produced in certain months in a year where the moisture is ideal. These pieces were finished within a total period of two and a half years from 1991 to 1993.

The three slanting legs of the horse are the pivot points of the whole piece. The principle of balance has to be considered. The firing of the Cracked Green Glaze was a success. The Glaze appears as transparent as the green colour found on emerald. No glaze has been applied to the courser which is depicted with the biscuit. The contrast of the green glaze to the brownish biscuit creates a delicate and charming sense, which highlights Guan Yu’s personality of “upholding righteousness and justice throughout the universe”.

​開片綠釉

三條傾斜的馬腿為整件作品的著力點,須符合重心平衡原理,製作難度甚高。因為原作在製作過程中是用手工慢慢縐捺或貼抹,每一處陶土的密度不同,而創作此種支撐重量的作品時,濕度須控制得宜,太乾或太濕的工作環境,易使創作中的陶塑產生乾裂而失敗,(不同於瓷器或銅製品可用注漿方式完成),故一年中只有數個乾濕適中的月份可進行工作,於1991年~1993年整整花兩年半時間才完成此作品。

三條傾斜的馬腿為整件作品的著力點,須符合重心平衡原理,製作難度甚高。開片綠釉燒成的色澤相當成功,有如翡翠般的透明綠,此釉色與不上釉的棕色胎土駿馬,色彩對比雅緻而有韻味,使關羽「正義凜然,義貫乾坤」的性格愈加鮮明。

關公 開片綠釉(28吋) 廖洪標 1990.jpg
關公 開片綠釉(28吋) 廖洪標 1990(1).jpg

Cracked Green Glaze

Guan Yu, with the style name Guan Yunchang, was a great general of the Kingdom of Shu Han, one of the Three Kingdoms. In the late Eastern Han Dynasty, Liu Bei, Zhang Fei and Guan Yu became sworn brothers and they vowed to live and die together and to serve the Han court. In feudal China, Guan Yu had been regarded as a role model of “loyalty and righteousness”. The title Marquis of Shouting of the Han Dynasty was granted to him, and he was bestowed posthumously the title Wu Sheng Di Jun (Saintly Emperor Guan of War)  A man of loyalty and righteousness, he has been greatly respected by the mass and overseas Chinese since the Song and Yuan era. He is regarded as the personification of righteousness and worshipped as a deity with the title of “Saintly Loyal Righteous Kind and Courageous Emperor Guan”. In the novel Romance of the Three Kingdoms, there is a description of the physical appearance of Guan Yu: a person at a height of nine chi (a traditional Chinese unit of length, approximately equal to one foot), with a long beard hanging over his belly. His face was of the color of a zao (Chinese date) and his lips were so red that they seemed to have been polished by rouge. His eyes were like those of a phoenix’s and his eyebrows resembled silkworms. He was wearing a green head cloth and a green robe. He had a dignified aura and looked quite majestic.

Green glaze is meant to express historical descriptions better. According to historical records, Liu Bei gave Guan Gong a green gown as a gift to show how much he cherished their brotherhood. This is the only successful big kiln-burnt work of Guan Gong in green glaze by Liao Hongbiao.

開片綠釉

開片綠釉關公為三國蜀漢大將,姓關名羽字雲長,東漢末與劉備、張飛結為異姓兄弟,誓同生死,共扶漢室。是中國封建時代的「忠、義」典範人物。封漢壽亭侯,後受尊「武聖帝君」,他的忠義品格,宋元至今深受民間及海內外華僑尊崇,視為正義化身,作神供奉,尊稱「忠義仁勇關聖帝君」。《三國演義》記載關公的相貌是:身長九尺、鬚長過腹、面如重棗、唇若塗脂、丹鳳眼、臥蠶眉、頭戴綠巾、身穿綠袍、相貌堂堂、威風凜凜。以綠釉釉色更能貼近歷史情節,因在史籍故事的記載裡,劉備送關公一件綠袍,藉以彰顯他們之間的兄弟情誼。這也是廖洪標唯一一件大尺寸燒窯成功的綠釉關公。

1. 新增_工作區域 1 複本 8.jpg

Red Glaze‮

There are countless statues of Guan Yu in China. Liao Hongbiao is recognized as the “King of Guan Yu”, because his works of Guan Yu have a particularly imposing appearance – looking powerful, Guan Yu is not only a magnanimous and loyal general but also embraces scholarly temperament. Liao is apt at making use of the beauty of the strength of Guan Yu’s body structure to present the hero’s qualities of “loyalty, righteousness and courage”.

Guan Yu in this piece shows all the five fingers of his left hand to Lu Su, who is in front of him, but he is holding his Green Dragon Crescent Blade in his right hand at his back. With the blade facing backward, he is a warrior in a poise from which he is ready to resort to force at any moment. The implications are easy to understand – if my opponent takes any action, I’ll move faster than him; if his tries to strike me or rob anything from me, I’ll cut him into two pieces without hesitation. With rising eyebrows and bright piercing eyes, Guan reviles Zhou Cang angrily but he is actually striking at Lu Su and his colleagues. He insinuates that the Eastern Wu officials including Lu Su should not commit any rash acts – if they want to take forcible possession of Jing Zhou, a place of great strategic value, they should first destroy him, a man of lofty sentiments and high aspirations. With his toes pointing outwards, Guan stands upright in the Linjiang Pavilion (the pavilion by the bank of the Yangtze River). Pretending that he is drunk, he is using his wisdom and ready to resort to his martial talents to handle the difficult situation. Only great heroes have such qualities of loyalty, righteousness and courage.

紅釉

在中國以關公為題材的雕像甚多,廖洪標被公認為「關公王」。因他所塑的關公氣宇軒昂,威武中兼具儒雅風範及豁達忠誠的大將氣概。藉由關羽人體結構的力態美感,表現人物「忠、義、勇」的英雄性格。
本作品關公左手在前展五指於魯肅,右手握青龍偃月刀於身後,鋒刃向後,有武將蓄勢待發之狀。象徵敵若動則我先動,欲奪我欺我,定斬不饒;作品的面部表情眉毛上揚、目光炯炯,雖怒斥周倉,實則是指桑罵槐,暗告魯肅等吳臣不可妄動,欲奪取荊州寶土,先得破此豪情壯志。關雲長八字大開挺立臨江亭,佯稱醉意、酒氣微醺,然其文韜武略了然於胸。此等忠、義、勇豈常人得為之。

2.關公 紅釉(18吋) 廖洪標 1992.jpg
3. 新增_工作區域 1 複本 9.jpg
廖洪標_工作區域 1 複本 26.jpg
K1600_IMG_9480.JPG
廖洪標_工作區域 1 複本 26.jpg

Cracked Green Glaze

This standing statue of Guan Yu of 18 inches by 28 inches in dimensions depicts the episode of the general attending single-handed the banquet hosted by Lu Su. . This is an episode in which Guan gets closer to Eastern Wu, another kingdom of the Three Kingdoms, and it goes on the stage earlier than the one where Guan becomes one of the Five Tiger Generals. Guan is holding his weapon, the Green Dragon Crescent Blade, in his right hand, and showing his left hand. He is about to start a debate with his opponent and he wants to try fair means before resorting to force. The Green Glaze matches the description of Guan in the novel, but more importance has been attached to the red colour in Chinese cultural tradition. This is why red-glaze statues of Guan Yu have been much adored.

開片綠釉十八吋或廿八吋關公立像是描述關羽單刀赴會魯肅的情節,就時間上而言,比五虎將中之關羽更接近東吳。右手提著青龍偃月刀,左手伸出,正準備與對方辯論、一副先禮後兵神態。綠釉作品較合乎小說故事,但中國在文化傳統上較著重紅色,故紅釉關公亦深受喜愛。

新增_工作區域 1 複本 11.jpg
新增_工作區域 1 複本 11.jpg
廖洪標主頁用圖-36.jpg
1.  五虎將--關羽 廖洪標 1993.jpg
1.1  五虎將--關羽 廖洪標 1993.jpg
1.1  五虎將--關羽 廖洪標 1993.jpg

Cracked Green Glaze

The floating robe reminds us of the heroic bearing of Guan Yu, who stands at the bow of the ship speeding for Eastern Wu. Looking majestic, he is determined to defeat his adversaries.

This image looks different from those found in the other standing statues of Guan Yu produced by the artist, because this piece has to comply with the overall composition of the “Five Brave Generals”. Yet the spirit of “loyalty and righteousness” expressed in this piece is identical to that in other statues of Guan Yu. The same thoughts and sentiments are revealed by the same figure of various forms. This shows that the artist is highly self-demanding when he makes his endeavors in artistic creation.

開片綠釉

飄起的衣袍,令人聯想關公站在船頭,迎風奔向東吳的英姿,威風凜凜,抱著必勝的決心。此造型配合五虎將整體結構協調,故與作者所塑之關公立像形象不同,但其所表達「忠義」的精神是一致的。同一人物藉由多樣化的形式,來表達相同的內在思想感情,可看出作者從事藝術創作自我嚴謹要求的態度。

2.1  五虎將--張飛 廖洪標 1993.jpg

Cracked Green Glaze

Zhang Fei was involved in the Battle of Changbanqiao (literally the Bridge of Long Boards). With his wits and courage, he succeeded in scaring away Cao Cao’s one hundred thousand soldiers by yelling. Holding his snake-shaped spear horizontally, standing on the bridge, with his fierce-looking beard pointing upward and his eyes wide open, he yelled sternly and loudly to Cao Cao’s army. Such heroic bearing reminded Cao Cao’s soldiers who had been chasing Zhao Yun (Zhao Zilung) of the scenario of “taking a general’s head amid an army of a million is as easy as drawing something out of one’s pocket…” They were so frightened that they dared not take the risk to move forward, and they chose to retreat.

開片綠釉

描述長坂橋一役,張飛憑藉智勇,喝退曹操十萬大軍情節。他橫舉蛇矛,站在橋上,虎鬚倒豎,兩眼圓睜,厲聲大喝,此種英雄氣勢,令追趕趙雲而來的曹營兵馬聯想到「百萬軍中取上將之頭如探囊取物……」不敢冒然前進而撤退。

2.1  五虎將--張飛 廖洪標 1993.jpg
IMG_9657五虎將‧張飛-4.jpg
3.1  五虎將--趙雲 廖洪標 1993.jpg
3.  五虎將--趙雲 廖洪標 1993.jpg
3.1  五虎將--趙雲 廖洪標 1993.jpg

Cracked Green Glaze

Zhao Zilung was a powerful-looking and loyal warrior with dense eyebrows and big eyes. With the sole target of protecting his little master, he untied the heart-protecting mirror on his armour and placed E’dou, Liu Bei’s son, against his chest. He fought alone and broke through the tight encirclements of the army of Cao Cao, who was very impressed with his bravery. Cao Cao praised Zhao Zilung as a tiger-like warrior and ordered his army that they should capture Zhao alive.

開片綠釉

濃眉大眼,相貌威武的趙子龍,忠心耿耿,一心護主,在和眾多敵軍廝殺中救出劉備之子阿斗,解開胸膛中的護心鏡,將他放入懷中,突破重圍的英勇形象。曹操見其英勇,讚他是一名虎將,通令全軍,只能活捉趙雲。

4.1  五虎將--馬超 廖洪標 1993.jpg

Cracked Green Glaze

Wearing a helmet with lion’s hair, a firm and solid armour and with a robe tied to his stout waist, Ma Chao looked courageous and was proud of himself. His father, Ma Teng, was killed by Cao Cao. This statue depicts Ma Chao’s determination to avenge his father. Feeling humiliated, he grinds his teeth and his piercing eyes are full of anger. This is a figure of a very impressive personality.

開片綠釉

頭戴獅髦頭盔,身披鎧甲,虎腰配上戰袍,馬超有種傲視群倫的神態,威勇無比。其父馬騰為曹操所殺,此處描述馬超咬牙切齒,含唇怒目,誓報殺父之仇,人物性格表達相當突出。

4.  五虎將--馬超 廖洪標 1993.jpg
4.1  五虎將--馬超 廖洪標 1993.jpg
5.1  五虎將--黃忠 廖洪標 1993.jpg
5.  五虎將--黃忠 廖洪標 1993.jpg
5.1  五虎將--黃忠 廖洪標 1993.jpg

開片綠釉

將軍黃忠老當益壯,獨自率兵挑戰東吳先鋒潘璋,證明自己並非年邁無用。黃忠像象徵著寶刀未老,生命不朽,永遠戰鬥到底的精神意志。

Cracked Green Glaze

Old but vigorous, General Huang Zhong led his own troop to challenge Pan Zhang, Eastern Wu’s vanguard, to prove that he was not old and of no use. Huang Zhong symbolizes a good sword that remains always sharp, the eternal life, and the spirit that one will fight to the end.

13莊拍舊正片.jpg
桃園結義 廖洪標 1995(1).jpg
桃園三義_工作區域 1.jpg

Cracked Yellow Glaze

This set of pieces depicts the scenario found in the first chapter of the novel Romance of the Three Kingdoms , where Liu Bei, Guan Yu and Zhang Fai became sworn brothers. This was the moment when Liu Bei launched his career. Liao aims at conveying the message that “great undertaking will definitely prosper when the king and his generals gather”. He has depicted the personality and features of each of these three heroes as if they are elements of an integrated image that echo with each other. With his exquisite techniques, he reveals the features of each figure in different manners. Vertical and solemn-looking lines and agitated gestures are used to express the heroic, humble and far-sighted Liu Bei. Guan Yu’s sobriety, wisdom, courage, honesty and sincerity are expressed with straight and dynamic lines which are suitable to show both his intellectual and martial talents; the gestures of touching his beard with his left hand and holding a wine cup in his right hand match a great general’s qualities of broad-mindedness, loyalty and honesty. The rugged, impatient, bold and upright image of Zhang Fei is a big contrast to those of Liu and Guan; yet it also echoes perfectly with them. The three figures are dressed plainly and their spirits are conveyed by means of their appearances. The whole set does not depict any big movements like the three heroes raising their cups high and drinking heartily. It however places the emphasis on the implicitly revealed connotations: Liu Bei’s humility that gains him support of people, Guan Yu’s superhuman courage embedded in his stateliness, and Zhang Fei’s wits hidden under the cover of his impetuousness.

開片黃釉
本作取材於《三國演義》的開卷章,即劉備創業的開始,表現劉備、關羽、張飛三人結義金蘭的場面。廖洪標在構思上抓住了「王將相聚,大業必興」的藝意,將三位英雄各具的性格、特徵,聯成一個整體形象,互相呼應。在人物塑造方面,他以熟練的技巧,運用了垂直肅穆的線條,激動的手勢,刻劃劉備英偉、謙遜而有遠見的神態;關羽則以莊重、智勇而敦厚,用直中有動的線條表現,以文現武,左手揚鬚,右手舉杯,顯出豁達忠誠的大將氣概;張飛卻以粗獷、急躁、耿直而猛烈的形態正好與劉備、關羽形成對比,相得益彰。整套作品,衣著簡樸,以形傳神,互相呼應。作品並沒有突出三人舉杯痛飲,興高彩烈的大動勢,而側重在內涵中,顯露了劉備謙遜得人和,關羽威嚴藏神勇,張飛猛漢存機智的傳神特徵。